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Mapping age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-2018.

Authors
  • Haeuser, Emily1
  • Serfes, Audrey L2
  • Cork, Michael A2
  • Yang, Mingyou2
  • Abbastabar, Hedayat3
  • Abhilash, E S4
  • Adabi, Maryam5
  • Adebayo, Oladimeji M6
  • Adekanmbi, Victor7
  • Adeyinka, Daniel Adedayo8, 9
  • Afzal, Saira10, 11
  • Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku12
  • Ahmadi, Keivan13
  • Ahmed, Muktar Beshir14, 15
  • Akalu, Yonas16
  • Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola17, 18
  • Akunna, Chisom Joyqueenet19, 20
  • Alahdab, Fares21
  • Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour22
  • Alanzi, Turki M23
  • And 287 more
  • 1 Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. [email protected].
  • 2 Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
  • 3 Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 4 Department of Botany, Sree Narayana Guru College Chelannur, Kozhikode, India. , (India)
  • 5 Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 6 College of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 7 Department of Population Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
  • 8 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 9 Department of Public Health, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 10 Department of Community Medicine, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 11 Department of Public Health, Public Health Institute, Lahore, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 12 The Australian Centre for Public and Population Health Research (ACPPHR), University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 13 School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
  • 14 Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 15 Australian Center for Precision Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 16 Department of Medical Physiology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 17 Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 18 Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
  • 19 Department of Public Health, The Intercountry Centre for Oral Health (ICOH) for Africa, Jos, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 20 Department of Public Health, Federal Ministry of Health, Garki, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 21 Mayo Evidence-based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
  • 22 Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 23 Health Information Management and Technology Department, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 24 Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 25 Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, WA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 26 Institute of Health Research, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana. , (Ghana)
  • 27 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 28 Department of Health Economics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 29 Department of Epidemiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 30 Research Group in Hospital Management and Health Policies, Universidad de la Costa (University of the Coast), Barranquilla, Colombia. , (Colombia)
  • 31 Research Group in Health Economics, University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia. , (Colombia)
  • 32 Department of Health Services Management, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Khomein, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 33 Department of Maternal and Child Wellbeing, African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya. , (Kenya)
  • 34 Pharmacy Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania. , (Oman)
  • 35 Department of Parasitology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 36 Department of Parasitology, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 37 Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. , (Ghana)
  • 38 Center for International Health, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 39 Department of Public Health, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK.
  • 40 School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 41 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 42 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 43 Department of Surgery, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 44 The Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 45 San Martin de Porres University, Lima, Peru. , (Peru)
  • 46 Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana. , (Ghana)
  • 47 Department of Health Economics, Centre for Health Policy Advocacy Innovation & Research in Africa (CHPAIR-Africa), Accra, Ghana. , (Ghana)
  • 48 Department of Nursing, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 49 Hospital Management Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 50 Department of Reproductive Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 51 Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India. , (India)
  • 52 Discipline of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 53 Department of Community Health and Primary Care, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 54 Unit of Biochemistry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (Sultan Zainal Abidin University), Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. , (Malaysia)
  • 55 Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 56 Polish Mothers' Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 57 Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 58 T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 59 Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 60 Department of Social Services, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 61 Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Charles University, Hradec Kralova, Czech Republic. , (Czechia)
  • 62 Institute of Public Health, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. , (United Arab Emirates)
  • 63 Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India. , (India)
  • 64 Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India. , (India)
  • 65 School of Public Health, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India. , (India)
  • 66 Department of Statistical and Computational Genomics, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, Kalyani, India. , (India)
  • 67 Department of Statistics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India. , (India)
  • 68 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 69 Nutrition Department, St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 70 St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 71 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 72 Department of Internal Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India. , (India)
  • 73 WHO Collaborating Centre for HIV Strategic Information, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. , (Croatia)
  • 74 Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
  • 75 School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 76 Al Shifa School of Public Health, Al Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 77 Department of Health Care, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico. , (Mexico)
  • 78 Research Unit on Applied Molecular Biosciences (UCIBIO), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. , (Portugal)
  • 79 Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India. , (India)
  • 80 Department of Community Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, India. , (India)
  • 81 Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Chennai, India. , (India)
  • 82 James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. , (Bangladesh)
  • 83 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.
  • 84 Center for Biomedicine and Community Health, VNU-International School, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • 85 Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Park West, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 86 Environmental Health Department, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 87 IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi (Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute IRCCS), University of Milan, Milan, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 88 Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
  • 89 Department of Population and Health, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. , (Ghana)
  • 90 Department of Information Technology, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 91 Institute for Research and Innovation in Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. , (Portugal)
  • 92 Institute of Biomedical Engineering (INEB), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. , (Portugal)
  • 93 Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Griffith University, Mount Gravatt, QLD, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 94 Wellcome Trust Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK.
  • 95 School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 96 National Centre for AIDS and STD Control, Save the Children, Kathmandu, Nepal. , (Nepal)
  • 97 Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. , (Sweden)
  • 98 Department of Community Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. , (Sri Lanka)
  • 99 Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
  • 100 Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 101 Department of Epidemiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 102 Center of Complexity Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico. , (Mexico)
  • 103 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Rosales, Culiacán, Mexico. , (Mexico)
  • 104 Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Urmia University of Medical Science, Urmia, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 105 Development of Research and Technology Center, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 106 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 107 Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. , (Serbia)
  • 108 School of Public Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 109 School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 110 Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. , (Egypt)
  • 111 Department of Neurology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. , (Egypt)
  • 112 Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 113 Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 114 Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, BC, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 115 Institute for Health Science Research Germans Trias i Pujol, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Badalona, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 116 IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Badalona, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 117 Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Morocco, Casablanca, Morocco. , (Morocco)
  • 118 Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 119 Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 120 Torrens University Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 121 Institute of Resource Governance and Social Change, Kupang, Indonesia. , (Indonesia)
  • 122 Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry (LAQV), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. , (Portugal)
  • 123 Psychiatry Department, Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, CA, USA.
  • 124 School of Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ, USA.
  • 125 Institute of Public Health, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Charité Medical University Berlin), Berlin, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 126 Institute of Gerontology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine. , (Ukraine)
  • 127 Department of Medical Parasitology, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 128 Faculty of Medicine, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 129 Department of Dermatology, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 130 Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
  • 131 Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
  • 132 Department of Community Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, India. , (India)
  • 133 Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 134 Department of Public Health, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 135 Infectious Disease Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 136 Pediatric Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 137 School of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 138 Health Systems and Policy Research, Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, India. , (India)
  • 139 Department of Family and Community Medicine, University Of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 140 Department of Microbiology, Saint James School of Medicine, The Valley, Anguilla. , (Anguilla)
  • 141 Department of Epidemiology, Saint James School of Medicine, The Valley, Anguilla. , (Anguilla)
  • 142 Faculty of Nursing, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 143 Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. , (Georgia)
  • 144 Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 145 Obesity Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 146 School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. , (United Arab Emirates)
  • 147 Department of Public Health, Jigjiga University, Jijiga, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 148 Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 149 Caspian Digestive Disease Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 150 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 151 Independent Consultant, Tabriz, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 152 Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 153 Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, China. , (China)
  • 154 Department of Statistics and Econometrics, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania. , (Oman)
  • 155 School of Business, London South Bank University, London, UK.
  • 156 Department of Urban Planning and Design, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. , (China)
  • 157 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 158 Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 159 Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
  • 160 Department of Computer Science, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 161 Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. , (China)
  • 162 Department of Health Promotion and Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 163 Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 164 Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 165 Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. , (Serbia)
  • 166 Department of Epidemiology, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia. , (Serbia)
  • 167 Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 168 School of Health Systems and Public Health, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 169 Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
  • 170 Institute of Comparative Economic Studies, Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 171 Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical College & Hospital, Delhi, India. , (India)
  • 172 Department of Community Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. , (India)
  • 173 Vanke School of Public Health, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. , (China)
  • 174 Department of Community Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India. , (India)
  • 175 National Institute of Epidemiology, Indian Council of Medical Research, Chennai, India. , (India)
  • 176 Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Opole, Opole, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 177 School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 178 Institute for Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 179 Health Services Management Department, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 180 Department of Biostatistics, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 181 Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India. , (India)
  • 182 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 183 International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 184 Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 185 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 186 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 187 Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. , (United Arab Emirates)
  • 188 Department of Population Science, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. , (Bangladesh)
  • 189 Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
  • 190 College of Arts and Sciences, Ohio University, Zanesville, OH, USA.
  • 191 Department of Public Health, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA. , (Mexico)
  • 192 School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia. , (Malaysia)
  • 193 School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway. , (Norway)
  • 194 Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
  • 195 Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway. , (Norway)
  • 196 School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 197 Arthritis Research Canada, Richmond, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 198 Independent Consultant, Jakarta, Indonesia. , (Indonesia)
  • 199 Kasturba Medical College, Udupi, India. , (India)
  • 200 Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 201 Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 202 Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. , (India)
  • 203 Department of Demography, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 204 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 205 University of Environment and Sustainable Development, Somanya, Ghana. , (Ghana)
  • 206 Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. , (Kenya)
  • 207 Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK.
  • 208 Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, London, UK.
  • 209 Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. , (Indonesia)
  • 210 Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 211 Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India. , (India)
  • 212 Unit of Genetics and Public Health, Institute of Medical Sciences, Las Tablas, Panama. , (Panama)
  • 213 Ministry of Health, Herrera, Panama. , (Panama)
  • 214 Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
  • 215 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, India. , (India)
  • 216 Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
  • 217 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 218 Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
  • 219 Department of Quantitative Health Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
  • 220 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 221 Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 222 Department of Pediatrics, Montefiore Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
  • 223 Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
  • 224 Campus Caucaia, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará, Caucaia, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 225 Peru Country Office, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Lima, Peru. , (Peru)
  • 226 Forensic Medicine Division, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 227 Department of Reproductive Health and Population Studies, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 228 Breast Surgery Unit, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 229 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 230 Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Dr. Zora Profozic Polyclinic, Zagreb, Croatia. , (Croatia)
  • 231 University Centre Varazdin, University North, Varazdin, Croatia. , (Croatia)
  • 232 Institute of Addiction Research (ISFF), Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 233 Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • 234 Internal Medicine Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 235 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 236 Department of Nursing, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 237 Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA.
  • 238 Department of Pharmacy, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 239 Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 240 Department of Health Care Management, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 241 Computer, Electrical, and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 242 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. , (China)
  • 243 Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 244 College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adeaide, SA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 245 Research and Analytics Department, Initiative for Financing Health and Human Development, Chennai, India. , (India)
  • 246 Department of Research and Analytics, Bioinsilico Technologies, Chennai, India. , (India)
  • 247 Laboratory of Public Health Indicators Analysis and Health Digitalization, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia.
  • 248 Experimental Surgery and Oncology Laboratory, Kursk State Medical University, Kursk, Russia.
  • 249 Department of Biotechnology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 250 Department of Pediatrics, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 251 Department of Disease Control and Environmental Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. , (Uganda)
  • 252 Department of General Surgery, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania. , (Oman)
  • 253 Department of General Surgery, Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania. , (Oman)
  • 254 Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. , (Tanzania)
  • 255 Department of Public Health, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. , (Cameroon)
  • 256 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Embu, Embu, Kenya. , (Kenya)
  • 257 Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • 258 South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 259 School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 260 Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 261 Unit of Microbiology and Public Health, Institute of Medical Sciences, Las Tablas, Panama. , (Panama)
  • 262 Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Herrera, Panama. , (Panama)
  • 263 Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 264 Department of International Public Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
  • 265 Administrative and Economic Sciences Department, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania. , (Oman)
  • 266 Department of Community Health and Primary Care, University of Lagos, Idi Araba, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 267 Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
  • 268 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 269 Department of Psychiatry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 270 Community Prevention and Care Services, National AIDS Control Committee, Abuja, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 271 Centre for Healthy Start Initiative, Lagos, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 272 Diplomacy and Public Relations Department, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 273 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 274 University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 275 Department of Project Management, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
  • 276 Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 277 Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 278 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara Academy of Health Education and Research, Mysore, India. , (India)
  • 279 Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India. , (India)
  • 280 Department of Health Metrics, Center for Health Outcomes & Evaluation, Bucharest, Romania. , (Oman)
  • 281 Research Department, Nepal Health Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal. , (Nepal)
  • 282 Research Department, Public Health Research Society Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal. , (Nepal)
  • 283 Saveetha Medical College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, India. , (India)
  • 284 Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 285 Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 286 Population Health Theme, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 287 Department of Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
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  • 302 Research and Innovation Division, South Asian Institute for Social Transformation (SAIST), Dhaka, Bangladesh. , (Bangladesh)
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  • 306 WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Education and Training, Imperial College London, London, UK.
  • 307 University College London Hospitals, London, UK.
  • 308 Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
  • 309 Academic Public Health England, Public Health England, London, UK.
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  • 312 Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , (Iran)
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  • 325 Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. , (Egypt)
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  • 328 Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
  • 329 Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
  • 330 Geriatric and Long Term Care Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar. , (Qatar)
  • 331 Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK.
  • 332 College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, QLD, Townsville, Australia. , (Australia)
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  • 337 Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
  • 338 School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
  • 339 Medicine Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Birmingham, AL, USA.
  • 340 Department No.16, Moscow Research and Practical Centre on Addictions, Moscow, Russia.
  • 341 Department of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
  • 342 Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 343 Cancer Control Center, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan. , (Japan)
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  • 350 Modestum LTD, London, UK.
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  • 360 Foundation University Medical College, Foundation University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
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  • 362 School of Public Health, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. , (Kenya)
  • 363 School of Population Health and Environmental Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.
  • 364 Centre for Health Policy Research, Torrens University Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 365 Department of community Medicine, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. , (Sri Lanka)
  • 366 Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
  • 367 School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 368 The George Institute for Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
  • 369 Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. , (China)
  • 370 Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. , (China)
  • 371 Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 372 Department of Public Health, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 373 Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • 374 Addictology Department, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Moscow, Russia.
  • 375 School of Public Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. , (China)
  • 376 Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. , (China)
  • 377 School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. , (China)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Medicine
Publisher
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Publication Date
Dec 19, 2022
Volume
20
Issue
1
Pages
488–488
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12916-022-02639-z
PMID: 36529768
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still among the leading causes of disease burden and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the world is not on track to meet targets set for ending the epidemic by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Precise HIV burden information is critical for effective geographic and epidemiological targeting of prevention and treatment interventions. Age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence estimates are widely available at the national level, and region-wide local estimates were recently published for adults overall. We add further dimensionality to previous analyses by estimating HIV prevalence at local scales, stratified into sex-specific 5-year age groups for adults ages 15-59 years across SSA. We analyzed data from 91 seroprevalence surveys and sentinel surveillance among antenatal care clinic (ANC) attendees using model-based geostatistical methods to produce estimates of HIV prevalence across 43 countries in SSA, from years 2000 to 2018, at a 5 × 5-km resolution and presented among second administrative level (typically districts or counties) units. We found substantial variation in HIV prevalence across localities, ages, and sexes that have been masked in earlier analyses. Within-country variation in prevalence in 2018 was a median 3.5 times greater across ages and sexes, compared to for all adults combined. We note large within-district prevalence differences between age groups: for men, 50% of districts displayed at least a 14-fold difference between age groups with the highest and lowest prevalence, and at least a 9-fold difference for women. Prevalence trends also varied over time; between 2000 and 2018, 70% of all districts saw a reduction in prevalence greater than five percentage points in at least one sex and age group. Meanwhile, over 30% of all districts saw at least a five percentage point prevalence increase in one or more sex and age group. As the HIV epidemic persists and evolves in SSA, geographic and demographic shifts in prevention and treatment efforts are necessary. These estimates offer epidemiologically informative detail to better guide more targeted interventions, vital for combating HIV in SSA. © 2022. The Author(s).

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