BackgroundMandible osteomyelitis can occur in synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome, a rare chronic inflammatory disease; however, few studies have explored its characteristics and management.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of consecutive SAPHO patients with mandible involvement diagnosed in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from September 2014 to July 2019. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected at baseline. Prescription data and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were collected from the hospital information system. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to all patients to obtain their latest symptoms.ResultsA total of 26 SAPHO patients with mandibular involvement were involved, all of whom responded to the questionnaire (38.5% male; median age, 28 years; median follow-up duration, 2.1 years). Ten patients (38.5%) had undergone an oral procedure 1 month before the onset of mandibular symptoms. All 14 of the patients who underwent a surgical intervention relapsed within a median duration of 2 months (range 0.25–4.0 months), and 24 patients (92.3%) achieved improvement with conservative treatment. Following bisphosphonate treatment, remission of bone marrow oedema and osteolysis was observed on MRI and CBCT, and 5 patients receiving bisphosphonates with follow-up CBCT after remission did not relapse in 5.4 months (mean 6.0, range 3.2–9.9 months).ConclusionMandibular involvement of SAPHO syndrome predominantly occurs in young women. Dental procedures are a possible risk factor. Conservative treatment, especially intravenous bisphosphonates, can lead to oral improvement.