In this study, an attempt has been made to examine and analyse the ancient mandibles of people who have died several hundreds of years ago during the second and first millenium B.C. These mandibles have been recovered from the burial mounds in Bahrain (Arabian Gulf) and preserved in the National Museum and the Department of Antiquities in Bahrain. The dental conditions recorded are e.g. attrition, caries, fluorosis, periodontitis or antemortem tooth loss. The results indicate the age, sex, diet, occupation and environmental conditions that existed and even the culture of the people. A comparative study of the ancient mandibles and those of the present generation has been carried out.