The growing epidemic of T2DM requires intervention to assist patients who have been diagnosed to better manage the disease, to reduce the risk of developing the disease in those who have not yet been diagnosed, and to manage the associated complications. In addition to individualizing interventions based on a patient's needs, concerns, and capabilities, taking gender into account is necessary. In otherwise healthy people, several independent factors appear to pose a higher risk of T2DM in men relative to women, including systolic hypertension, regular smoking, and alcohol intake ≥ 40 g/d. At the same time, men achieve greater risk reduction from moderate daily alcohol intake and a diet high in fish and seafood, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and magnesium. Once diagnosed with T2DM, men generally fare better than women regarding the risk for CVD; they also have a better prognosis after MI and a lower risk of death overall from CVD. Possible independent risk factors for CVD in men with T2DM that are especially important may include hypertension, poor glycemic control, and low HDL-C levels. Psychosocial complications, such as depression, are less likely in men with T2DM. However, men expend less effort coping, are less likely to utilize healthcare services, and are less informed about treatment options. Although men have a lower expectation of the benefit of self-management, they find support from family and friends more helpful than do women, but they are fearful of losing control of their disease. Taking these gender differences into account should prove helpful as family care physicians work with men to reduce their risk of developing T2DM and in helping men diagnosed with T2DM to better self-manage their disease.