Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of blindness in young adults in developed countries, affecting 12% of type 1 and 28% of type 2 diabetic patients. The gold standard DME treatment should be based on a good control of glycemia along with control of lipids and renal function. However, despite the systemic metabolic control values being essential for patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR), it has proven to be insufficient for DME if it appears. With these patients, additional measures are needed in order to avoid the subsequent loss of vision. While laser treatment of DME has been the only valid treatment so far, it has been inadequate in chronic cases. The introduction of new treatments, such as intravitreal corticosteroids or anti-VEGF drugs, have recently shown their safety and efficacy and together with laser photocoagulation are becoming the treatments of choice in the management of DME.