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The management of type 1 diabetes in adults. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).

  • Holt, Richard I G1, 2
  • DeVries, J Hans3, 4
  • Hess-Fischl, Amy5
  • Hirsch, Irl B6
  • Kirkman, M Sue7
  • Klupa, Tomasz8
  • Ludwig, Barbara9
  • Nørgaard, Kirsten10, 11
  • Pettus, Jeremy12
  • Renard, Eric13, 14
  • Skyler, Jay S15
  • Snoek, Frank J16
  • Weinstock, Ruth S17
  • Peters, Anne L18
  • 1 Human Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. [email protected]
  • 2 Southampton National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK. [email protected]
  • 3 Amsterdam UMC, Internal Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 4 Profil Institute for Metabolic Research, Neuss, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 5 Kovler Diabetes Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
  • 6 UW Medicine Diabetes Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.
  • 7 University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
  • 8 Department of Metabolic Diseases, Center for Advanced Technologies in Diabetes, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 9 University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 10 Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. , (Denmark)
  • 11 University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. , (Denmark)
  • 12 University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • 13 Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France. , (France)
  • 14 Institute of Functional Genomics, University of Montpellier, CNRS, Inserm, Montpellier, France. , (France)
  • 15 University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
  • 16 Amsterdam UMC, Medical Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 17 SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
  • 18 Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Published Article
Publication Date
Sep 30, 2021
DOI: 10.1007/s00125-021-05568-3
PMID: 34590174


The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) convened a writing group to develop a consensus statement on the management of type 1 diabetes in adults. The writing group has considered the rapid development of new treatments and technologies and addressed the following topics: diagnosis, aims of management, schedule of care, diabetes self-management education and support, glucose monitoring, insulin therapy, hypoglycaemia, behavioural considerations, psychosocial care, diabetic ketoacidosis, pancreas and islet transplantation, adjunctive therapies, special populations, inpatient management and future perspectives. Although we discuss the schedule for follow-up examinations and testing, we have not included the evaluation and treatment of the chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes as these are well-reviewed and discussed elsewhere. The writing group was aware of both national and international guidance on type 1 diabetes and did not seek to replicate this but rather aimed to highlight the major areas that healthcare professionals should consider when managing adults with type 1 diabetes. Though evidence-based where possible, the recommendations in the report represent the consensus opinion of the authors. Graphical abstract. © 2021. European Association for the Study of Diabetes and American Diabetes Association.

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