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Management of grazing animals for environmental quality

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Since the last decade, increasing importance has been given in the European Union to environmental concerns and sustainable development. This trend has led to consider grazing management not only as a way to transform primary production into meat or milk, but also as a tool to move grassland, rangeland or woodland trajectories towards higher biodiversity and lower environmental hazards. To warrant forest multifunctionality special attention is given to flexible grazing management techniques adapted to the potential multiple uses and the ecological dynamics of the forest. To reduce the threat of fire, grazing management is focused on stimulating dry forage in take and shrub browsing, and is adapted to the structure and spatial organisation of fire prevention management plans. To enhance biodiversity grazing management has shifted towards more diversified stocking rates, by organising grazing calendars adapted to the life cycle of endangered species or to high seasonal grazing pressure on specific ecological targets

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