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Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients With CKD: Core Curriculum 2022.

Authors
  • Hahr, Allison J1
  • Molitch, Mark E2
  • 1 Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.
  • 2 Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address: [email protected]estern.edu.
Type
Published Article
Journal
American Journal of Kidney Diseases
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
May 01, 2022
Volume
79
Issue
5
Pages
728–736
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.05.023
PMID: 34600745
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The most common cause of kidney failure in the United States and across the world is diabetes mellitus (DM). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) further increases overall CVD risk. It is important to individualize glycemic targets for patients to maintain glucose levels that will reduce the development and progression of complications while avoiding hypoglycemia. CKD alters the relationship of glucose levels to measures of long-term control, such as hemoglobin A1c. Medications used to treat DM may need dose adjustments as CKD progresses. Some medications have particular characteristics in patients with CKD. Insulin and sulfonylureas increase the risk of hypoglycemia, some glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists reduce the risk of CVD outcomes, and most sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of CKD and CVD outcomes. Therefore, for the individual patient, changes in medication types and doses may need constant attention as CKD progresses. Copyright © 2021 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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