A retrospective analyses of 307 cases with clinical Stage I endometrial carcinoma was done in an attempt to determine the role of radiation therapy in the optimal treatment of this disease. A review of the modern literature with over 9000 cases served as a useful tool to corroborate inferences and conclusions. The present series has 155 patients (51%) treated with preoperative megavoltage external pelvic radiation with a variation in doses of less than 6%. Five-year survival estimates (79%-83%) in clinical Stage I endometrial carcinoma are similar among the several main treatment combination that are employed; they become a useless parameter for any comparison. The pelvic failure rate constitutes a more useful guideline in assessing the most adequate therapy. The pathologic grade of the tumor is the main prognosticator in endometrial carcinoma. Intimately related to the tumor grade is the depth of myometrial invasion of the carcinoma. The size of the uterus and/or its cavity carry less prognostic significance than traditionally thought. For grade I lesions, there is little error in diagnosis, few pelvic failures and excellent survival (96%); they could be approached with initial surgery and postoperative radiation reserved for selected patients. For grade 2 tumors, the error in diagnosis and the failure rate increases with an overall survival of 87%. For grade 3 tumors, the error in diagnosis and failure rates are quite high with a 5 year survival of only 70%. Preoperative radiation, especially external beam therapy, is suggested for grades 2 and 3 Stage I tumors. The use of this treatment modality yields only 3% pelvic failure and an overall 5 year survival of almost 90%.