The potential for blast to cause injury depends on the nature of the explosive and environment in which the blast occurs. Soft tissue injury with environmental contamination is frequent. Optimal antimicrobial cover and strategies such as selective digestive decontamination may be advantageous. Early surgery should follow the principles of 'damage control'. Blast injury often leads to severe sepsis/systemic inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction and prolonged critical illness. In this clinical scenario, recent studies have shown improved outcome with the use of activated protein C, steroid replacement and aggressive control of blood glucose but have been less convincing regarding the use of immuno-nutrition.