Plasmodium vivax is a protozoan parasite that is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Due to several occult features of its life cycle, P. vivax threatens to be a problem for the recent efforts toward elimination of malaria globally. With an emphasis on malaria elimination goals, the authors summarize the major gaps in P. vivax diagnosis and describe how proteomics technologies have begun to contribute toward the discovery of antigens that could be used for various technology platforms and applications. The authors suggest areas where, in the future, proteomics technologies could fill in gaps in P. vivax diagnosis that have proved difficult. The discovery of new parasite antigens, host responses, and immune signatures using proteomics technologies will be a key part of the global malaria elimination efforts.