Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and most common malignant primary brain tumour in adults and has a high mortality and morbidity. Because local tumour control in glioblastoma patients is still elusive in the majority of patients, there is an urgent need for alternative treatment strategies. However, to implement changes to the existing clinical standard of care, research must be conducted to develop alternative treatment strategies. A novel approach in radiotherapy is the introduction of pre-clinical precision image-guided radiation research platforms. The aim of this review is to give a brief overview of the efforts that have been made in the field of radiation research using animal models of glioblastoma. Because MRI has become the reference imaging technique for treatment planning and assessment of therapeutic responses in glioblastoma patients, we will focus in this review on small animal radiotherapy combined with MRI.