The genome of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) encodes 15 glycoside hydrolase 18 family chitinases. In this study, we characterized the function of an M. oryzae extracellular chitinase, MoChi1, and its interaction with a host protein, OsMBL1, a jacalin-related Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) in rice (Oryza sativa). Deletion of MoChi1 resulted in reduced aerial hyphal formation and reduced virulence in rice by activating the expression of defense-responsive genes. We confirmed MoChi1 interaction with rice OsMBL1 in vitro and in vivo. OsMBL1 was induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and M. oryzae infection. Overexpression of OsMBL1 led to activation of rice defense-responsive genes and a chitin-induced reactive oxygen species burst, thereby enhancing resistance to M. oryzae. Knockdown of OsMBL1 enhances susceptibility of rice plants to M. oryzae. Furthermore, MoChi1 suppressed chitin-induced reactive oxygen species in rice cells and competed with OsMBL1 for chitin binding. Taken together, our study reveals a mechanism in which MoChi1 targets a host lectin to suppress rice immunity.