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Macrophage Activation Markers, Soluble CD163 and Mannose Receptor, in Liver Fibrosis

Authors
  • Gantzel, Rasmus Hvidbjerg1
  • Kjær, Mikkel Breinholt1
  • Laursen, Tea Lund1
  • Kazankov, Konstantin1, 2
  • George, Jacob3
  • Møller, Holger Jon4
  • Grønbæk, Henning1
  • 1 Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus , (Denmark)
  • 2 Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, University College London, London , (United Kingdom)
  • 3 Storr Liver Centre, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW , (Australia)
  • 4 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus , (Denmark)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Medicine
Publisher
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Jan 08, 2021
Volume
7
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2020.615599
Source
Frontiers
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Medicine
  • Mini Review
License
Green

Abstract

Macrophages are essential components of the human host immune system, which upon activation facilitates a broad pallet of immunomodulatory events including release of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, restoration of immune homeostasis and/or wound healing. Moreover, some macrophage phenotypes are crucially involved in fibrogenesis through stimulation of myofibroblasts, while others promote fibrolysis. During the last decades, the role of resident liver macrophages viz. Kupffer cells and recruited monocytes/macrophages in acute and chronic liver diseases has gained interest and been extensively investigated. Specifically, the scavenger receptors CD163 and mannose receptor (CD206), expressed by macrophages, are of utmost interest since activation by various stimuli induce their shedding to the circulation. Thus, quantifying concentrations of these soluble biomarkers may be of promising clinical relevance in estimating the severity of inflammation and fibrosis and to predict outcomes such as survival. Here, we review the existing literature on soluble CD163 and soluble mannose receptor in liver diseases with a particular focus on their relationship to hepatic fibrosis in metabolic associated fatty liver disease, as well as in chronic hepatitis B and C.

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