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M cell-derived vesicles suggest a unique pathway for trans-epithelial antigen delivery.

Authors
  • Sakhon, Olivia S1
  • Ross, Brittany1
  • Gusti, Veronica1
  • Pham, An Joseph1
  • Vu, Kathy1
  • Lo, David D1
  • 1 Division of Biomedical Sciences; School of Medicine ; University of California , Riverside; Riverside, CA USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Tissue barriers
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2015
Volume
3
Issue
1-2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/21688370.2015.1004975
PMID: 25838974
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

M cells are a subset of mucosal epithelial cells with specialized capability to transport antigens across the mucosal barrier, but there is limited information on antigen transfer in the subepithelial zone due to the challenges in tracking microparticles and antigens that are transcytosed by this unique cell. Using transgenic reporter mice expressing dsRed in the cytoplasm of M cells and EGFP in myeloid cells, we observed that the M cell basolateral pocket hosts a close interaction between B lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Interestingly, we identified a population of previously undescribed M cell-derived vesicles (MCM) that are constitutively shed into the subepithelial space and readily taken up by CX3CR1(+)CD11b(+) CD11c(+) dendritic cells. These MCM are characterized by their cytoplasmic dsRed confirming their origin from the M cell cytoplasm. MCM showed preferential colocalization in dendritic cells with transcytosed bacteria but not transcytosed polystyrene beads, indicating a selective sorting of cargo fate in the subepithelial zone. The size and number of MCM were found to be upregulated by bacterial transcytosis and soluble toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist, further pointing to dynamic regulation of this mechanism. These results suggest that MCM provide a unique function by delivering to dendritic cells, various materials such as M cell-derived proteins, effector proteins, toxins, and particles found in the M cell cytoplasm during infection or surveillance.

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