Bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages, are major contributors to the evolution, pathogenesis and overall biology of their host bacteria. During their life cycle, temperate bacteriophages form stable associations with their host by integrating into the chromosome, a process called lysogeny. Isolates of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae are frequently lysogenic, and genomic studies have allowed the classification of these phages into distinct phylogenetic groups. Here, we review the recent advances in the characterization of temperate pneumococcal phages, with a focus on their genetic features and chromosomal integration loci. We also discuss the contribution of phages, and specific phage-encoded features, to colonization and virulence. Finally, we discuss interesting research perspectives in this field.