Induction by mitomycin or high-temperature treatment resulted in the production of bacteriocins and phages in both phases of Xenorhabdus nematophilus A24, indicating lysogeny. Phage DNA purified from X. nematophilus A24 hybridized to several fragments of DraI-digested A24 chromosomal DNA, confirming that the phage genome was incorporated into the bacterial chromosome. Bacteriocins and phages were detected in cultures of most other Xenorhabdus spp. after mitomycin or high-temperature treatment. Xenorhabdus luminescens K80 was not lysed by these treatments, and no phages were seen associated with this strain. However, bacteriocins were detected in limited quantities in all Xenorhabdus cultures, including X. luminescens K80, without any induction. X. nematophilus A24 bacteriocins were antagonistic for other Xenorhabdus species but not for A24 or other strains of X. nematophilus.