Recent advances in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are based on the identification of so-called driver mutations, resulting in a more personalized treatment setting. Currently about 15% of NSCLC patients benefit from improved treatment protocols based on the genetic background of the tumor. In the last few years cancer immunotherapy has returned to the center of attention and comprises a variety of treatment approaches incorporating adaptive, as well as innate immunity. Current strategies involve the use of monoclonal antitumor antibodies, cancer vaccines, adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T and NK cells as well as the blockade of so-called immune checkpoints (immune inhibitory pathways). Especially the combination of current treatments with immunotherapy seems promising to achieve highly potent antitumor effects. However, a profound understanding of the dynamic and complex interaction between lung cancer and the host immune system and especially its immune checkpoints is the foundation to identify potential biomarkers for a personalized cancer immunotherapy approach.