The ZnSe single crystal treatment in air environment with linearly polarized Ti/sapphire femtosecond (fs)laser pulses of the energy density of around 0.04-0.05 J/cm2 with central wavelength of 800 nm and the pulse duration of 140 fs at a repetition rate of 1 kHz generates the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs). The setup with a cylindrical quartz lens at normal incidence allowed processing a relatively large area of the ZnSe sample in one pass of the laser beam. Morphology analysis of LIPSS by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing reveals the existence of two periods of around 200.0 nm and 630.0 nm simultaneously. All LIPSSs demonstrate the orientation perpendicular to the laser beam polarization. The possible nature of LIPSS formation on ZnSe single crystal is caused by the synergetic influence of the interference mechanism involving surface plasmon polaritons and hydrodynamic effects of surface morphology modification. The fs-laser-induced changes of carrier concentrations in ZnSe specify obtained periods of high spatial frequency LIPSS. The influence of femtosecond laser processing on luminescent properties of ZnSe single crystal has been studied by an analysis of the photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray luminescence (XRL) spectra of laser-treated and untreated areas in the visible region of spectrum at room and low temperatures. The PL spectra and XRL spectra, as well as temperature dependencies of XRL spectra or thermally stimulated luminescence curves, demonstrate a good correlation for untreated and fs-laser-treated ZnSe surfaces. Specific PL bands related to the extended structural defects do not appear for LIPSS at the ZnSe sample under an excitation of 337 nm (3.68 eV). The Relative intensities and position of separate components of observed luminescence bands after ultrashort laser treatment do not change significantly. Thus, the structural perfection of the ZnSe single crystal surface is preserved.