To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of RNA editing, we have characterized the low psii accumulation66 (lpa66) Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, which displays a high chlorophyll fluorescence phenotype. Its perturbed chlorophyll fluorescence is reflected in reduced levels of photosystem II (PSII) proteins. In vivo protein labeling showed that synthesis rates of the PSII reaction center protein D1/D2 were lower, and turnover rates of PSII core proteins higher, than in wild-type counterparts. The assembly of newly synthesized proteins into PSII occurs in the lpa66 mutant but with reduced efficiency compared with the wild type. LPA66 encodes a chloroplast protein of the pentatricopeptide repeat family. In lpa66 mutants, editing of psbF that converts serine to phenylalanine is specifically impaired. Thus, LPA66 is specifically required for editing the psbF transcripts in Arabidopsis, and the amino acid alternation due to lack of editing strongly affects the efficiency of the assembly of PSII complexes.