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Lower prevalence of cigarette and waterpipe smoking, but a higher risk of waterpipe dependence in Lebanese adult women than in men.

Authors
  • Salameh, Pascale
  • Khayat, Georges
  • Waked, Mirna
Type
Published Article
Journal
Women & health
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2012
Volume
52
Issue
2
Pages
135–150
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2012.656885
PMID: 22458290
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether nicotine dependence was higher in Lebanese women smokers compared with men smokers. Data were taken from a national cross-sectional study. Lebanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were enrolled between October 2009 and September 2010. After informed consent, participants answered a standardized questionnaire about smoking behaviors and dependence (measured by the Fagerström-Test-Nicotine-Dependence for cigarettes and the Lebanon-Waterpipe-Dependence-Scale 11 for waterpipes): 1,066 males and 1,134 females were interviewed. 58.7% versus 42.9% of them, respectively, ever smoked cigarettes, while 6.9% versus 6.7% ever smoked a waterpipe (p < 0.001). Moreover, 57.5% in male versus 49.1% in female cigarette smokers (p = 0.041), 35.9% versus 51.6% in waterpipe smokers (p = 0.076), and 67.9% versus 43.6% in mixed smokers were tobacco dependent. A dose-effect relationship was observed with increased rates of women versus men with waterpipe dependence) and an increased odds of dependence among women in multivariable analysis (ORa = 2.28). Positive (smoking waterpipe for pleasure and conviviality) and negative (smoking waterpipe to relax nerves and improve morale) reinforcements were significantly more frequent in women, while no significant sex difference was observed for nicotine dependence or psychological craving. In exclusive waterpipe smokers, significantly higher respiratory diseases and symptoms prevalences were found in females compared with males. Women who smoke waterpipes should receive attention during tobacco health education and smoking cessation.

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