Malnutrition, due to low body mass index (LBMI), is considered to be one of the key risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) development. The link between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and BMI has been studied in active pulmonary TB. However, the association of BMI with cytokines and chemokines in TB lymphadenitis (TBL) has not been examined. Hence, we wanted to examine the plasma levels of different cytokines and chemokines in TBL individuals with LBMI, normal BMI (NBMI) and high BMI (HBMI). LBMI with TBL disease is associated with enhanced systemic levels of type 1 (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], interleukin-2 [IL-2]) and type 2 (IL-4, IL-13) cytokines in comparison with NBMI and/or HBMI. However, other pro-inflammatory (IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, G-CSF, and GM-CSF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-5 and IL-10) cytokines were not significantly different among the TBL individuals with different BMI status. Likewise, no significant differences were observed in the CC (CCL-1, CCL-2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CCL11/eotaxin) and CXC (CXCL-1/GRO-⍺, CXCL2/GRO-β, CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC 1) chemokine profile among the TBL individuals with different BMI. Hence, our data implies that TBL individuals with LBMI are characterized by minimal effects on plasma cytokines and chemokines in TBL. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.