This study aimed to characterize the safety and effectiveness of GH treatments, in usual clinical practice, in children with short stature born small for gestational age (SGA). This was a multicenter, open-label, non-interventional study ( NCT01110928 ) conducted at 150 sites in Japan (2009–2018). The primary objective was to assess the type and frequency of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) associated with long-term GH use. Overall, 452 naïve and 46 non-naïve (previously treated) children were enrolled. GH treatment was well‑tolerated, with SADRs occurring in 1.3% (6/452) and 0% (0/46) of naïve and non-naïve children, respectively. No new safety concerns or notable changes in glucose metabolism were identified during long-term treatment. Altogether, 57 children (32 naïve and 25 non-naïve) reached near adult height (NAH). In naïve and non-naïve children, mean ± standard deviation (SD) height standard deviation score (SDS) at NAH were –2.03 ± 0.77 and –1.53 ± 0.81, respectively, representing a change of +0.85 ± 0.72 and +1.24 ± 0.66 from baseline height SDS, respectively. Mean treatment duration to NAH was 4.29 (naïve) and 7.26 (non-naïve) yr. Thus, long-term GH treatment for short stature in children born SGA was confirmed to have a good safety profile and was effective for improving adult height.