The reports of rotavirus C (RVC) involvement in diarrhea outbreaks in newborn piglets have been increasing in recent years. This longitudinal study, conducted over a 37-day period, aimed to evaluate the frequency of RVC infection in piglets aged up to 7 days obtained from a pig herd with a previous diagnosis of RVC infection in this age group. Piglets from 50 different litters were monitored daily for the occurrence of diarrhea, and all litters were classified into the following categories: sow parity order (PO) 1 to 5; litter size (LS) ≤ 10 piglets and > 10 piglets; and piglet birth weight (BW) 1.2 to 1.3 kg and > 1.3 to 1.4 kg. Two hundred six diarrheic fecal samples were collected and classified according to the fecal consistency score (pasty, semiliquid, liquid). Ten fecal samples were collected from asymptomatic piglets (control group). Fecal samples were screened for rotavirus (RV) by silver stained-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE), and samples with inconclusive and negative-ss-PAGE results were submitted to RVC VP6 gene amplification by RT-PCR. RVC was identified in 71 (34.5%) samples, in 1 (10%) sample of the control group, and in piglets from 33 (66%) litters. The electrophoretic profile of RV species A was identified in only two samples. Of the 72 RVC-positive samples, 51 (70.8%) presented semiliquid or liquid consistency. There was no significant difference in either group regarding the production parameters (PO, LS, BW) evaluated. An analysis of the whole VP6 gene of three RVC field strains collected on the first, fifteenth, and last day of the experiment enabled us to identify genotype I6. This report describes the first longitudinal study examining epidemiological aspects of RVC infection in newborn piglets.