Adequate and balanced intake of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFA) is important throughout life, and directly affects health status: from preconception and pregnancy to the prevention of various diseases. Russia geographically belongs to regions with a low level of consumption of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. In addition, gender characteristics and genetic polymorphisms underlie the variability of the synthesis of ω-3 LCPUFA in the human organism from alpha-linolenic acid. ω-3 LCPUFA play one of the key roles in the human organism: they regulate lipid metabolism, have a positive effect on cognitive functions, have anti-inflammatory activity, and contribute to the prolongation of pregnancy. ω-3 LCPUFA should be ingested in sufficient quantities, since they are essential nutrients, be in the form of release, provide high compliance for admission and be balanced in content of EPA and DHA. Copyright© GEOTAR-Media Publishing Group.