This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the long-term results of the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) procedure performed at our department of bariatric surgery. The 126 consecutive patients treated by LRYGB between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2002 were analyzed in August 2011. Seventy-seven patients (61.1 %), including 18 who had had previous bariatric surgery, were available for evaluation after 9.4 ± 0.6 years (range, 8.7-10.9 years). Eight patients (10.4 %) suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMII) at the time of surgery. Initial body mass index (BMI) was 40.3 ± 7.5 kg/m(2) (range, 24.5-66.1 kg/m(2)). There was no postoperative mortality, but two patients died of causes unrelated to the surgery. Some 9 % of the patients suffered from internal herniation, despite the closure of potential hernia sites. With time, the patients had the tendency to experience weight regain: percentage of excess BMI lost was 56.2 ± 29.3 % (range, -78.8 to 117.9 %), down from a maximum of 88.0 ± 29.6 % (range, -19.7 to 197.1 %), that had been obtained after a median of 2.0 years (range, 1-8 years). LRYGB was effective for diabetes control in 85.7 % of the affected patients, but, surprisingly, 27.9 % developed new-onset diabetes. The weight regain in this latter patient group was statistically not different from the nondiabetic group. Conversely, four patients required hospitalization for hypoglycemic syndrome. Two patients underwent reversal of their bypass for problems linked to glucose metabolism (one hypoglycemia, one DMII). Patient quality of life was fair. The patient satisfaction remained good in 76 % of the cases.