Seventy patients suffering from ischemic cerebrovascular disease had had their first attack before the age of 40 years. Of these patients 57 were re-examined 84 months (mean) after the initial event. Within 48 months, 22 of 51 patients (43.1%) without surgical treatment had recurrent ischemic events (78.6% patients with transient ischemic attacks, 33.3% patients with protracted reversible deficits, 28.6% patients with completed stroke). Of all patients 31.5% had their first recurrent attack during the first year, most of them during the first few months after the initial event. In spite of the considerably higher recurrence rate, patients with initial transient ischemic attacks or protracted reversible deficits had a lower degree of social disability at the end of the follow-up period than patients with an initial completed stroke. In 72.2% of the patients with recurrent events the ischemic focus was found in a vascular area different from the one originally concerned. Patients with arterial hypertension during the follow-up period had a somewhat less-favorable long-term prognosis, but nicotine abuse or relative body weight had no influence on the degree of social disability at the end of the follow-up period. In general, long-term prognosis was rather favorable, 78.4% of the patients being fully capable of work at the end of the follow-up period. Nevertheless, results point to the necessity of complete diagnostic evaluation without delay and introduction of individual therapy for patients suffering from "juvenile stroke."