Intensive therapy and autologous blood and marrow transplantation (ABMT) is an established post-remission treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), although its exact role remains controversial and few data are available regarding longer-term outcomes. We examined the long-term outcome of patients with AML transplanted at a single center using uniform intensive therapy consisting of etoposide, melphalan and TBI. In all, 145 patients with AML underwent ABMT: 117 in first remission, 21 in second remission and seven beyond second remission. EFS and OS were significantly predicted by remission status (P<0.0001). For transplantation in first remission, 8 year EFS and OS were 55% (95% CI, 44-64%) and 62% (95% CI, 50-72%), respectively. By multivariate analysis, only age (P=0.04) and cytogenetic risk group (P=0.006) influenced OS. For patients transplanted in second remission, 8 year EFS and OS were 30% (95% CI, 9-55%) and 36% (95% CI, 13-60%), respectively. No pre-transplant variables significantly predicted outcome. None of the seven patients who underwent ABMT beyond second remission or in early relapse were long-term survivors. ABMT can provide long-term antileukemic control for patients with AML in first remission. For patients in second remission approximately 30% can achieve cure with ABMT, and this option may be preferable to alternate donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation.