The long term effects of inferior olive destruction on the activities of the Purkinje cells and their target neurones in the cerebellar nuclei were studied in the rat. Careful observations were also made of motor behaviour throughout the study. Albino rats were injected with 3-acetylpyridine to produce a neurotoxic destruction of the inferior olive and then were used for acute recording experiments at 1-2 days, 5-7 days, 12-18 days, 35-38 days, 75-97 days and 230-252 days. After degeneration of the inferior olive, there was an initial period lasting for a few days, characterized by a high firing frequency of Purkinje cells associated with a very low level of activity of the neurones in the cerebellar nuclei. During this period, there was a deep depression of motor activity. A period of adaptation follows during the first month, characterized by a slow recovery of the initial firing frequency of the cerebellar units and a gradual recovery of spontaneous locomotion; nevertheless the firing pattern and motor behaviour remain abnormal. From one month on the unit activities disturbances and the motor deficiencies stabilize. The hypothesis is advanced that Purkinje cell inhibition on their target neurones, which increases during the initial period, gradually diminishes during the adaptation time, and then stabilizes to a subnormal state.