Rhesus monkeys with neonatal damage to either the medial temporal lobe or the inferior temporal cortical area TE, and their normal controls, were reassessed in visual habit formation (24-hour intertrial interval task) and visual recognition (delayed nonmatching to sample; DNMS) at 4-5 years of age and then tested on tactile and spatial DNMS. Results on the two visual tasks were the same as those obtained when the monkeys were under 1 year of age. Specifically, early medial temporal lesions, like late lesions, left habit formation intact but severely impaired recognition memory. Furthermore, the memory deficit extended to the tactile and spatial modalities. By contrast, early damage to TE, unlike late damage to it, yielded only mild deficits on both visual tasks and had no effect on tactile or spatial DNMS. Compensatory mechanisms that promote substantial and permanent recovery thus appear to be available after neonatal TE lesions but not after neonatal medial temporal lesions.