BackgroundAs an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with a high risk of recurrence, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks available treatment targets. LncRNA MIR100HG promotes cell proliferation in TNBC. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanism of MIR100HG in TNBC. Thus, additional in-depth investigations are needed to unravel its associated regulatory mechanism.MethodsMIR100HG and miR-5590-3p expression in TNBC tissue samples and cell lines was detected by RT-qPCR. Flow cytometry, transwell, wound-healing, CCK8 and colony formation assays were performed to analyse cell apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion, migration and proliferation. The protein expression of orthodenticle homeobox 1 (OTX1) and proteins in the ERK/MAPK signalling pathway were assessed by western blot analysis. Bioinformatics and luciferase assay were performed to predict and validate the interaction between MIR100HG and miR-5590-3p as well as OTX1 and miR-5590-3p. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) was used to detect the interaction between MIR100HG and miR-5590-3p. Subcutaneous tumour growth was observed in nude mice. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was used to assess OTX1 expression in tumour tissues.ResultsMIR100HG expression was upregulated, whereas that of miR-5590-3p was downregulated in TNBC. MIR100HG was shown to directly interact with miR-5590-3p. Furthermore, MIR100HG knockdown could promote TNBC cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase while inhibiting migration, invasion and proliferation. Furthermore, miR-5590-3p inhibition showed the opposite results and could reverse the effect of MIR100HG knockdown in TNBC cells. MiR-5590-3p downregulated the ERK/MAPK signalling pathway, suppressed the migration, invasion and proliferation of TNBC cells and promoted their apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase by targeting OTX1. In addition, MIR100HG knockdown inhibited OTX1 expression by upregulating miR-5590-3p in vivo, thereby inhibiting tumour growth.ConclusionsMIR100HG promotes the progression of TNBC by sponging miR-5590-3p, thereby upregulating OTX1, suggesting a new potential treatment target for TNBC.