BackgroundMost epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) experience oligoprogressive disease. Local ablation for isolated resistant sites continued with the original EGFR-TKI showed good efficacy in these patients. We conducted this multicenter retrospective study to investigate the potential benefit of thermal ablation in NSCLC patients that developed extra-central nervous system (CNS) oligoprogressive disease during TKI treatment.MethodsA total of 71 EGFR-mutant patients treated with EGFR-TKIs were identified. Progression-free survival 1 (PFS1) was calculated from the initiation of TKI treatment to first progression. Patients with metastatic sites ≤ 3 in less than 3 extra-CNS organs suitable for local ablation therapy received either radiofrequency ablation or microwave ablation to these sites and continued on the original TKIs. PFS2 was defined from the first progression to second progression after ablation.ResultsThe median PFS1 for all patients was 11.8 months. Eighty extra-CNS oligoprogressive lesions in 71 patients were ablated. Thirty-six of 71 patients progressed after thermal ablation and 31 of whom died during the study period. The median PFS2 after thermal ablation was 10.0 months, and the median overall survival was 26.4 months. PFS1 and PFS2 were highly correlated with OS, whereas PFS1 was not correlated with PFS2. The numbers of oligoprogressive lesions were significantly and independently associated with PFS2.ConclusionLocal thermal ablation for the oligoprogressive lesions with continuous EGFR-TKI treatment is associated with additional 10 months of disease control and should be recommended in TKI acquired resistant-NSCLC patients.