This study was intended to clarify the potential of applying the long-chain noncoding RNA H19/miR-29a axis in keloid treatment by elucidating its correlation with the activity of fibroblasts. In this study, 80 keloid tissues, 63 normal fibrous tissues, and 91 normal skin tissues were collected in advance, and concurrently, fibroblasts separated from the tissues were cultured. Besides this, the si-H19, pcDNA3.1-H19, miR-29a mimic, and miR-29a inhibitor were transfected to keloid fibroblasts, whose proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis were appraised by employing the colony formation assay, flow cytometry, and transwell assay. In addition, the luciferase reporter gene assay was carried out to determine whether targeted regulation was present between H19 and miR-29a, as well as between miR-29a and COL1A1. The study results demonstrated that keloid tissues and fibroblasts exhibited observably upregulated H19 expression and downregulated miR-29a expression, relative to normal skin tissues and fibroblasts (P < .05). Also observed was a negative correlation between H19 expression and miR-29a expression among the gathered keloid tissues (rs = -.267, P = .017). Furthermore, in vitro transfection of pcDNA3.1-H19 or miR-29a inhibitor could intensify viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of the fibroblasts (P < .05), while silencing of H19 and overexpression of miR-29a hindered both metastasis and multiplication of the fibroblasts significantly (P < .05). In addition, H19 was capable of altering miR-29a expression within fibroblasts by directly sponging it, and overexpression of COL1A1 could deter the impact of miR-29a on viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of fibroblasts (P < .05). In conclusion, H19 might facilitate proliferation and metastasis of fibroblasts by modifying downstream miR-29a and COL1A1, which was expected to allow for development of keloid-targeted treatments. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.