We determined collagen synthetic rates and utilization of key amino acid precursors of collagen in slices of wedge liver biopsy specimens obtained at required surgery from 9 patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and from 4 control patients. The liver specimens from the patients with schistosomiasis showed advanced fibrosis, with histologic evidence of schistosomiasis alone in four, and both schistosomiasis and chronic active hepatitis in five cases. Liver slices were incubated with radioactive proline, arginine and glutamine, using quantitative assay conditions validated earlier for murine schistosomiasis. Collagen peptide synthesis in slices from all nine fibrotic liver specimens was 4- to 25-fold greater than normal and correlated positively with liver collagen content, which was 2- to 5-fold greater than normal. Free proline, an amino acid that may contribute to regulation of collagen peptide synthesis, was increased in six of the nine fibrotic liver specimens, and proline was actively formed from arginine in liver slices from all specimens. These measurements of the initial steps of collagen biosynthesis in fibrotic human liver are quantitatively similar to those previously made of the same processes in experimental animals.