A recent cohort mortality study of male, hourly wage employees of a large Michigan chemical production and research facility had found a greater than expected number of deaths coded to liver and biliary tract cancer. In response, an additional investigation was then undertaken of the 44 liver and biliary tract cancer deaths observed between 1940 and 1982. A random sample (N = 1,888) of subjects was selected from the total cohort (N = 21,437) to serve as referents. Company work history records were used to classify cases and referents by work area assignment and potential for exposure to 11 selected chemical agents which have been shown to produce cancer of the liver or biliary passages in experimental animals. Statistically significant associations in both positive and negative directions were found for several work areas within the facility. A suggestive association was found for vinyl chloride monomer, based on five cases with presumed exposure.