Live attenuated salmonellae are protective, and are candidate vaccines against invasive salmonella infections in man and animals. Different attenuating mutations have been described, and more than one can be incorporated in a vaccine for added safety. Combined salmonella vaccines express target carbohydrate and protein antigens or epitopes from viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic parasites, either within or on the surface of the cell, as capsules, fimbriae, or in the flagellin. Humoral, secretory and cellular responses to the recombinant antigens has been demonstrated. Experimental protection against diseases including streptococcal infection, tetanus, influenza and malaria has been obtained.