The extracellular protein p60 is a major virulence factor of the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Its roles in pathogen survival in vivo and host cell invasion in vitro were studied. To this end, Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 was used as carrier for secreted p60-HlyA fusion protein by Escherichia coli HlyB and HlyD transport proteins. C57BL/6 mice infected intravenously with this strain suffered from increased bacterial numbers in livers and spleens compared with the p60-nonexpressing control strain, but only transiently. In vitro experiments showed that p60 promotes invasion of recombinant S. typhimurium SL7207 p60 into hepatocytes and resting macrophages independent from complement. Moreover, the uptake of wild-type L. monocytogenes EGD and L. monocytogenes BUG 8, an internalin-deficient strain, into hepatocytes was partially blocked by anti-p60 antibodies. The impaired invasion of dissociated bacterial chains of L. monocytogenes RIII, a p60 expression mutant, into hepatocytes and macrophages was partially restored by addition of p60- or p60-HlyA-enriched bacterial supernatants. These data suggest that the L. monocytogenes surface-associated proteins, p60 and internalin, act in concert to achieve optimal uptake into nonprofessional phagocytes and macrophages. Together, these experiments reveal a substantial impact of p60 on cell invasion and virulence and thus emphasize the importance of the intracellular habitat for survival of L. monocytogenes in the host.