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Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the Confirmation of Caribbean Ciguatoxin-1 as the Main Toxin Responsible for Ciguatera Poisoning Caused by Fish from European Atlantic Coasts

Authors
  • Estevez, Pablo1
  • Sibat, Manoella
  • Leão-Martins, José Manuel1
  • Reis Costa, Pedro
  • Gago-Martínez, Ana1
  • Hess, Philipp
  • 1 (J.M.L.-M.)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Toxins
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Apr 21, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/toxins12040267
PMID: 32326183
PMCID: PMC7232264
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a common seafood intoxication mainly caused by the consumption of fish contaminated by ciguatoxins. Recent studies showed that Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX1) is the main toxin causing CP through fish caught in the Northeast Atlantic, e.g., Canary Islands (Spain) and Madeira (Portugal). The use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with neuroblastoma cell assay (N2a) allowed the initial confirmation of the presence of C-CTX1 in contaminated fish samples from the abovementioned areas, nevertheless the lack of commercially available reference materials for these particular ciguatoxin (CTX) analogues has been a major limitation to progress research. The EuroCigua project allowed the preparation of C-CTX1 laboratory reference material (LRM) from fish species ( Seriola fasciata ) from the Madeira archipelago (Portugal). This reference material was used to implement a liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for the detection of C-CTX1, acquisition of full-scan as well as collision-induced mass spectra of this particular analogue. Fragmentation pathways were proposed based on fragments obtained. The optimized LC-HRMS method was then applied to confirm C-CTX1 in fish ( Bodianus scrofa ) caught in the Selvagens Islands (Portugal).

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