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Lipids, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk. What Have We Learned?

Authors
  • Rhainds, David1
  • Brodeur, Mathieu R1
  • Tardif, Jean-Claude1, 2
  • 1 Montreal Heart Institute.
  • 2 Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Publisher
Wiley (Blackwell Publishing)
Publication Date
May 15, 2018
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1002/cpt.1114
PMID: 29761474
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the first cause of death in the world. CVD risk is influenced by multiple factors, some non-modifiable such as age, sex and genetic background, and others modifiable. Great progress has been made over the last decades in the identification of biomarkers of incident or recurrent CV risk and surrogate endpoints of CV outcomes. We present the current state of knowledge for CV biomarkers in plasma including lipids, apolipoproteins, inflammation-related, and emerging omics-based biomarkers. Clinically validated surrogate endpoints for CV outcomes include plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol reduction, and plasma triglyceride reduction is a likely relevant surrogate endpoint. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is not a validated surrogate endpoint, but is a useful biomarker of CV risk. CV risk biomarkers of interest include apolipoprotein B and non-HDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), C-reactive protein and recently genetic and protein-based risk scores and gut microbiota-derived trimethylamine oxide levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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