We aimed to provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the association between adverse birth outcomes and the development of wheezing during the first two years of life. We carried out a systematic review of epidemiological studies within the MEDLINE database. Epidemiological studies on human subjects, published in English, were included in the review. A comprehensive literature search yielded 72 studies for further consideration. Following the application of the eligibility criteria we identified nine studies. A positive association and an excess risk of wheezing during the first two years of life were revealed for adverse birth outcomes.