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Linear Growth between Early and Late Childhood and Cognitive Outcomes at 6-9 Years of Age.

Authors
  • Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash1
  • Hysing, Mari2
  • Taneja, Sunita3
  • Kvestad, Ingrid4
  • Bhandari, Nita5
  • Strand, Tor A6
  • 1 Centre for Health Research and Development, Society for Applied Studies, New Delhi, India; Centre for International Health, Bergen, Norway. , (India)
  • 2 Department of Psychosocial Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. , (Norway)
  • 3 Centre for Health Research and Development, Society for Applied Studies, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: [email protected] , (India)
  • 4 Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, West, NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Bergen, Norway. , (Norway)
  • 5 Centre for Health Research and Development, Society for Applied Studies, New Delhi, India. , (India)
  • 6 Centre for International Health, Bergen, Norway; Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway. , (Norway)
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of pediatrics
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2020
Volume
225
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.043
PMID: 32473149
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To assess the extent to which linear growth beyond the early years of life determines later cognitive development. We revisited children from New Delhi, India, who had participated in a randomized controlled trial 6 years before and assessed neurodevelopment using standardized and validated psychometric tools (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition; Crichton Vocabulary Scales; and Neuropsychological test battery). The associations of change in height for age z scores between early (12-36 months) and late (6-9 years) childhood with cognitive outcomes at 6-9 years of age were explored using linear regression models, after adjustment for appropriate confounders. Out of the 1000 North Indian children who were enrolled in the original study, 791 consented to participate in this follow-up. Height for age z scores in the first 2 years of life was significantly associated with both the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Crichton Vocabulary Scales (standardized β coefficient [β], 0.15; 95% CI, 0.08-0.23), and the Neuropsychological test battery-II z-score (β, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.03-0.18) at 6-9 years of age. There were no significant associations between change in height for age z scores between early and later childhood and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Crichton Vocabulary Scales (β, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.11 to 0.04) or Neuropsychological test battery-II z-scores (β, -0.04; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.06). Linear growth between early and late childhood is not associated with later cognitive outcomes. Our findings support the current practice of investing public health efforts to accelerate linear growth in the first 2-3 years of life. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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