The understanding of the nature of neurosis as secondary to a chronic conflict of motivations intolerable for a given type of the nervous system has prompted the choice of experimental neurosis in rats in the form of switching heterogeneous conditional reflexes according to E.A. Asratyan. Bilateral hippocampectomy has been shown to eliminate the neurotic symptoms whereas following the bilateral destruction of the amygdala the conflict of motivations can be evaded only by facilitating the formation of the evidently predominant need. The consequences of neurotigenic impacts depend on the individual peculiarities of rats, which may be elicited by simulating Eysenck's parameters. A hypothesis is put forward according to which neurosis arises as a result of an impaired interaction between the frontal neocortex, hippocamp, amygdala, and hypothalamus. An important role is played by cerebral hypoxia resulting from chronic emotional stress.