PurposeTo evaluate the association between lifetime personal cigarette smoking and young-onset breast cancer (YOBC; diagnosed <50 years of age) risk overall and by breast cancer (BC) subtype, and whether risk varies by race or socioeconomic position (SEP).MethodsData are from the Young Women's Health History Study (YWHHS), a population-based case-control study of non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and White (NHW) women, ages 20-49 years (n = 1812 cases, n = 1381 controls) in the Los Angeles County and Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry areas, 2010-2015. Lifetime personal cigarette smoking characteristics and YOBC risk by subtype were examined using sample-weighted, multivariable-adjusted polytomous logistic regression.ResultsYOBC risk associated with ever versus never smoking differed by subtype (Pheterogeneity = 0.01) with risk significantly increased for Luminal A (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.68) and HER2-type (aOR 1.97; 95% CI 1.23-3.16), and no association with Luminal B or Triple Negative subtypes. Additionally, ≥30 years since smoking initiation (versus never) was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of Luminal A (aOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.07-2.26) and HER2-type YOBC (aOR 2.77; 95% CI 1.32-5.79), but not other subtypes. In addition, among parous women, smoking initiated before first full-term pregnancy (versus never) was significantly associated with an increased risk of Luminal A YOBC (aOR 1.45; 95% CI 1.11-1.89). We observed little evidence for interactions by race and SEP.ConclusionFindings confirm prior reports of a positive association between cigarette smoking and Luminal A YOBC and identify a novel association between smoking and HER2-type YOBC.