Survival, T-cell functions, and postmortem histopathology were studied in H-2 congenic strains of mice bearing H-2b, H-2k, and H-2d haplotypes. Males lived longer than females in all homozygous and heterozygous combinations except for H-2d homozygotes, which showed no differences between males and females. Association of heterozygosity with longer survival was observed only with H-2b/H-2b and H-2b/H-2d mice. Analysis using classification and regression trees (CART) showed that both males and females of H-2b homozygous and H-2k/H-2b mice had the shortest life-span of the strains studied. In histopathological analyses, lymphomas were noted to be more frequent in females, while hemangiosarcomas and hepatomas were more frequent in males. Lymphomas appeared earlier than hepatomas or hemangiosarcomas. The incidence of lymphomas was associated with the H-2 haplotype--e.g., H-2b homozygous mice had more lymphomas than did mice of the H-2d haplotype. More vigorous T-cell function was maintained with age (27 months) in H-2d, H-2b/H-2d, and H-2d/H-2k mice as compared with H-2b, H-2k, and H-2b/H-2k mice, which showed a decline of T-cell responses with age.