Les Sciences hors d'Occident au 20ème siècle = 20th century sciences : beyond the metropolis : 3. Nature et environnement = Nature and environment

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Les Sciences hors d'Occident au 20ème siècle = 20th century sciences : beyond the metropolis : 3. Nature et environnement = Nature and environment

Authors
  • C.H. Davis
Publisher
ORSTOM
Keywords

Abstract

The Earth summit and the promotion of environmentally sound industrial innovation in developing countries THE EAKRi SUMMIT AND THE PROMOTION OF ENVIRONMENTAUY SOUND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Charles H. Ms Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo, Montevideo (Uruguay) induaion With the end of the cold war, issues of environment and economic development are assuming greater international salience. The linkages and overlaps between these two issue areas are already dense. They promise to become even denser in the future, increasing the complexity of the environment and development agenda. By the 1970s, over 1 O0 countries had established some variety of national environ- mental protection agency. But environmental degradation was becoming pervasive, with growing global effects. The Brundtland Commission's report (1 987) produced distressing evidence of planetary decline: "the annual loss of an area the size of Saudia Arabia to the march of the deserts, the loss of over 17 million hectares of tropical forests per year, the destruction of the earth's ozone shield by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons, and the possibility of a warming of the earth's climate over the next fifty years, greater than that experienced over the previous 10,000 years" (Runnalls 1993: 134). The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) estimates that, with expected growth and industrialization in the South, the developing countries' world share of carbon dioxide emissions will increase from 25% to 40% between 1985 and 2025, and their share of sulfur dioxide emissions will grow from 30% to 70%. Some now believe that the world-wide environmental crisis that threatens the first half of the 21st century "can only be compared to the 14th century catastrophe which annihilated one-half of the population of Europe" (Lipietz 1993: 11 1). At the same time, the unfortunate view is gaining ground that the Post-World War Two international developme

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