In this paper, we propose a rotation-invariant local binary descriptor (RI-LBD) learning method for visual recognition. Compared with hand-crafted local binary descriptors, such as local binary pattern and its variants, which require strong prior knowledge, local binary feature learning methods are more efficient and data-adaptive. Unlike existing learning-based local binary descriptors, such as compact binary face descriptor and simultaneous local binary feature learning and encoding, which are susceptible to rotations, our RI-LBD first categorizes each local patch into a rotational binary pattern (RBP), and then jointly learns the orientation for each pattern and the projection matrix to obtain RI-LBDs. As all the rotation variants of a patch belong to the same RBP, they are rotated into the same orientation and projected into the same binary descriptor. Then, we construct a codebook by a clustering method on the learned binary codes, and obtain a histogram feature for each image as the final representation. In order to exploit higher order statistical information, we extend our RI-LBD to the triple rotation-invariant co-occurrence local binary descriptor (TRICo-LBD) learning method, which learns a triple co-occurrence binary code for each local patch. Extensive experimental results on four different visual recognition tasks, including image patch matching, texture classification, face recognition, and scene classification, show that our RI-LBD and TRICo-LBD outperform most existing local descriptors.