We analyzed the lead content in antlers of 90 adult European roe bucks (Capreolus capreolus) that had been culled between 1901 and 2019 in an agricultural-dominated hunting district in Lower Saxony (Northern Germany). Antler lead values ranged between 0.2 and 10.9 mg/kg dry weight. Median lead concentration was highest after World War II, during a period (1956-1984) of rapidly increasing mass motorization and use of leaded gasoline. Lead levels in antlers decreased markedly after the phase-out of leaded gasoline, but high values were still found in some recently collected antlers. This could indicate persistent lead pollution from former use of lead additives to gasoline, other traffic-related sources, or from agricultural sources (e.g., sewage sludge, fertilizers). This study highlights the suitability of analyzing roe deer antlers for the historical monitoring of changing lead levels in the environment. By collecting antlers and providing them for study, local hunters can significantly contribute to environmental surveillance and the monitoring of environmental pollution by bone-seeking contaminants. © 2021. The Author(s).