Two of 15 children who survived neonatal meconium ileus had "meconium ileus equivalent." They were treated with hydration, pancreatic enzyme therapy and antibiotics. One of these children died from pulmonary disease at the time of the bowel obstruction. The survival rate of infants with meconium ileus is steadily improving because of prompt operative intervention, better preoperative and postoperative care and long-term treatment with enzyme supplements and antibiotics. Late intestinal obstruction due to adhesive bands, volvulus, intussusception or "meconium ileus equivalent" may occur in children previously treated for meconium ileus of infancy. The omission of pancreatic enzyme supplementation and the occurrence of respiratory infections are frequently associated with "meconium ileus equivalent."In this series of patients four of the infants treated surgically for neonatal meconium ileus died in the early postoperative period.