Growth is the most valuable economic trait for improving aquaculture fish species, since fast growth can reduce labor cost and make more economic benefits. However, the knowledge about how many and which genes are related to the growth of Chinese tongue sole is limited. High-throughput sequencing screening of variants is a fast, economical and accurate assay to identify genes related to growth in crops, livestock and other aquaculture products. In the present study, genome-wide resequencing of 30 female Chinese tongue sole individuals from large and small groups to screen growth trait-related variations (SNPs, InDels) was carried out. In total, 6545735 SNPs and 1016745 InDels were detected, while 31 genes related to growth traits were identified. Their functions were mainly involved in muscle architecture, post-embryonic development, neurosensory development and hormone regulation. Furthermore, 18 of the 31 genes related to growth trait are located on W chromosome, indicating that W chromosome plays an important role in regulating the body size of female tongue soles. The markers and genes identified in our study can be applied to selective breeding of tongue sole and thus will promote the aquaculture industry and increase economic efficiency.