BackgroundLipoleiomyoma is a rare, benign variant of the commonplace uterine leiomyoma. Unlike leiomyoma, these tumors are composed of smooth muscle cells admixed with mature adipose tissue. While rare, they are most frequently identified in the uterus, but even more infrequently have been described in extrauterine locations.Case presentationWe describe a case report of a 45-year-old woman with a history of in vitro fertilization pregnancy presenting 6 years later with abdominal distention and weight loss found to have a 30-cm intra-abdominal lipoleiomyoma. While cross-sectional imaging can narrow the differential diagnosis, histopathological analysis with stains positive for smooth muscle actin, desmin, and estrogen receptor, but negative for HMB-45 confirms the diagnosis of lipoleiomyoma. The large encapsulated tumor was resected en bloc. The patients post-operative course was uneventful and her symptoms resolved.ConclusionsLipoleiomyoma should be considered on the differential diagnosis in a woman with a large intra-abdominal mass. While considered benign, resection should be considered if the mass is symptomatic, and the diagnosis is unclear or there is a concern for malignancy.